Quality Control and Six Sigma Terms for Managers


Virtually any recurring business activity whether it is within a production or service setting. professionals gather information about variations throughout results related to each and every process for .

Six sigma

Six sigma is actually a statistical principle which calculates a process defects. Accomplishing six sigma implies the processes will be having just 3.4 defects per million opportunities – quite simply, they are really operating almost flawlessly. Sigma is actually a phrase within statistics which calculates standard deviation.


The measurable attribute in the process which is not inside the satisfactory customer boundaries, for example, not really conforming to requirements. Six Sigma is all about methods which assist you to get rid of flaws and provide services and products that will fulfill customer requirements. The particular sigma degree of a process is determined in terminology of the volume of defects within percentage to the volume of possibilities to get defects.


Any kind of quantifiable variation among a particular dimension or perhaps standard as well as change from such statistic or standard within the result of the process. Variance within results appear coming from numerous reasons within the performance and administration of business processes. A significant objective associated with process enhancement would be to decrease variance throughout results.

Total Quality Management (TQM)

The management strategy designed to target the business as being a system, having a focus on teams, procedures, data, ongoing development, and providing services and products that fulfill and even surpass client anticipation.

Essential few factors

Factors that will immediately clarify the particular cause-and-effect connection from the system end result getting assessed with regards to the particular inputs that generate the approach.

Usually, information implies that you will discover half a dozen or maybe less aspects for just about any process that most impact the level of quality of results in just about any process. Whenever you separate these types of components, you can decide what fundamental modifications you have to create to most efficiently and dependably enhance the results from the process.

Process capability

The statistical way of measuring built in variance for any provided function inside a steady process. It is generally looked as the process width divided simply by 6 sigma and additionally quantified making use of capability index. Considerably more commonly, it is the capability of the process to attain particular outcomes, depending on overall performance tests.


The senior administrator that encourages the particular Six Sigma system through the organization. The champion knows the control and resources of 6 Sigma, chooses initiatives, determines significant goals, is mentor and advisor, takes away obstacles, and provides the necessary resources to the team.

Critical to quality

Components of a process that will considerably impact the result of the process. Discovering these components is essential to understanding how you can make the changes that may significantly keep costs down plus improve quality.

Cost of poor quality

Entire work, resources, and expenses related to defects within the processes which provide services or products that do not satisfy requirements or targets.

These types of costs would likely consist of evaluation, rework, repeat work, returns, replacement parts plus refund amounts, issues, decrease in number of clients, in addition to harm to brand recognition. These are generally expenses that will go away when there had been simply no quality issues. An essential objective would be to decrease and even get rid of these costs.


A way of evaluating an operation, making use of typical or best practices as being a base, and after that discovering approaches to enhance the business process.

Business metric

A unit of measurement providing you with a means to objectively evaluate an activity. Just about any way of measuring that will help management realize the performance could be a business metric.

Examples may include amount of items finished each hour, percentage of imperfections coming from a process, time needed to produce a particular quantity of components or perhaps provide a customer support, number of new customers per month, number of complaints, etc. Business metrics and dashboard reporting is critical for continuous business improvement.


Average or arithmetic mean – the sum of the number of values divided with the quantity of values.


Midpoint inside a group of values (midpoint of your entire dataset).


Value that shows up most frequently within a range of values.


Variation involving the maximum value and the minimum value within a series – in other words the particular range between max and min of your data.


The metaphor – just like you apply the speed-checking device, engine oil measure, power supply signal, gas measure, along with other devices to observe the condition of the car – you need to keep an eye on important signals from the overall performance of the organization.

Just like the dashboard features, your own key performance indicators enable you to continuously evaluate your success and identify any kind of possible issues.


The standard with regard to side by side comparisons, a good reference point for computing improvement in boosting an operation, generally to distinguish among a present condition along with a future condition.

Gap analysis

A strategy utilized to evaluate a present condition along with a specific future condition.

Check sheet

This can be a listing of items which enables fast and simple collection of information within a basic standard structure. It is a fundamental and essential QC application.


This is really a bar graph showing the occurrence/frequency of data within relevant and specific groups or classes.


A way of getting individuals collectively to freely exchange thoughts and alternatives for certain issues or possibilities. Just about all recommendations are usually documented within the meeting minutes for likely usage instantly or even later on.

Process mapping

It is a visual look at your process actions for any provided scenario. Anyone can chart steps using boxes that will demonstrate job procedure in its whole, along with inputs and additionally results for every element recorded. It offers a person a precise understanding of a process movement.

Pareto chart

It is a bar chart extracting an issue in to the contributions of the elements, called for Vilfredo Pareto, who created the 80/20 rule. Keep in mind this recognizes the essential few components that will form 80% of the issue, so that you can concentrate on all of them and even disregard the left over 20%.

Run chart

This specific graph shows a measurement or business metric over the specific time period.

Fishbone or Cause and effect diagram

This particular diagram is utilized to spot and categorize reasons for specific outcome.

DMAIC Approach

symbolizes the 5 stages within the 6 Sigma strategy which are: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control.

Crucial Few Formula

When you make use of DMAIC, you will immediately understand that this methodology will depend on the accuracy and reliability of statistical evaluation and numerical concepts to achieve the required success. Key amongst all these will be the crucial few formula which is simply Y = f (X).

Where Y will be the results of an activity; this is a functionality associated with X’s — the important parameters within a process. Y is the feature of quality you are seeking to attain. By simply figuring out the X’s, you are able to determine, evaluate, enhance, and control these to accomplish ideal outcomes.

Run chart

A chart that shows overall performance information with time for any process, symbolizing the information generally like a line graph. It provides and analyzes data, showing variations with time having a line linking information points.


The degree by which 2 factors will be connected, scored with regards to the relationship ratio. Correlation will not always indicate causation.

Scatter plot

A chart that has particular data points displayed inside 2 dimensions. Also called a scatter or a cross plot chart.

Common cause

A natural cause of variance within the end result of the process. Also called random reason.

Special cause

A cause of deviation which is unforeseen and not as a result of normal reasons; is considered as an exception to the process outcomes.